J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2023;12(3): 425-431.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2023.47

Scopus ID: 85164948263
  Abstract View: 1133
  PDF Download: 652

Original Article

Evaluation of herbal gel toothpaste formulated using bay leaf essential oil on physicochemical characteristics and extrinsic stain removal

Mutiara Annisa 1* ORCID logo, Harsini Harsini 1 ORCID logo, Yosi Bayu Murti 2 ORCID logo

1 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author: Mutiara Annisa, Email: mutiara.annisa@mail.ugm.ac.id


Introduction: Bay (Syzygium polyanthum) leaf may be used as an extrinsic stain-removing agent in toothpaste. This study assesses the formula of bay leaf essential oil toothpaste in terms of physicochemical and extrinsic stain removal properties.

Methods: Using a gel composition with varying quantities of bay leaf essential oil (0%, 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% v/v), tubes of toothpaste were formulated. Commercial stain-removal toothpaste was used as a positive control. Five toothpastes were evaluated based on their organoleptic properties, pH, moisture content, foaming ability, abrasiveness, spreadability, gritty matter, and homogeneity. Extrinsic stain removal evaluation was carried out using 20 bovine teeth that were split into five groups of toothpaste (n=4). The specimens were tea-stained and submitted to simulated brushing. The colour difference (ΔE) was analysed to evaluate extrinsic stain removal using the parameter of CIE-Lab (Commision Internacional de l’Eclairage L*a*b). Using a chromameter, the L*a*b value of the teeth before and after brushing was used to measure the ΔE value. Data were analysed through one-way ANOVA with a confidence level of 95%.

Results: All tubes of toothpaste tested met acceptable physicochemical parameter standards. The bay leaf essential oil toothpaste with 0.25% and 0.5% v/v concentrations, as well as commercial toothpaste, produced better ΔE values than the 0% v/v group. There were no statistically significant differences between bay leaf essential oil at 0.5% v/v and commercial toothpaste (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Results demonstrated that bay leaf essential oil toothpaste had an extrinsic stain removal effect equivalent to positive control and promoted good physicochemical characteristics.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Toothpaste with bay leaf essential oil might be a breakthrough in oral hygiene products for teeth whitening by removing surface stains. This study provides new data on the development of bay leaf as an active agent to replace chemical active agents and abrasives in toothpaste with acceptable efficacy.

Please cite this paper as: Annisa M, Harsini, Murti YB. Evaluation of herbal gel toothpaste formulated using bay leaf essential oil on physicochemical characteristics and extrinsic stain removal. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2023;12(3):425-431. doi: 10.34172/ jhp.2023.47.

First Name
Last Name
Email Address
Security code

Abstract View: 1134

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

PDF Download: 652

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

Submitted: 02 Feb 2023
Revision: 19 Apr 2023
Accepted: 20 Apr 2023
ePublished: 01 Jun 2023
EndNote EndNote

(Enw Format - Win & Mac)

BibTeX BibTeX

(Bib Format - Win & Mac)

Bookends Bookends

(Ris Format - Mac only)

EasyBib EasyBib

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Medlars Medlars

(Txt Format - Win & Mac)

Mendeley Web Mendeley Web
Mendeley Mendeley

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Papers Papers

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

ProCite ProCite

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Reference Manager Reference Manager

(Ris Format - Win only)

Refworks Refworks

(Refworks Format - Win & Mac)

Zotero Zotero

(Ris Format - Firefox Plugin)