Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative problem that is increased progressively due to the increment of aging worldwide. Phytochemicals play an important role in the protection from neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of two dietary supplements (DS) rich in betalains, anthocyanins, and omega-3 fatty acids against AD. Methods: Two dietary supplements (DS I and DS II) were prepared; the first one was a mixture of anthocyanin-rich extract of purple carrot and flaxseed oil (DS I), while the second was a mixture of betalains-rich extract of beetroot and flaxseed oil (DS II). The protective effects of both DS were evaluated in an AD model. AD was induced in mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg). Biochemical changes in brain tissue and plasma were determined. Behavioral of mice was evaluated through Y–maze test, Morris water maze, and novel object recognition test. Changes in brain tissues were assessed through histopathological examination. In vitro antioxidant activities of DS I and DS II were evaluated. Also, the contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, betalains, and fatty acids profile were assessed. Results: Both DS investigated in the present study showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in acetylcholinesterase, antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA)in brain tissue and butyrylcholinesterase in plasma in association with amelioration in the behavioral tests and histopathological changes of the brain tissue. Conclusion: Both DS showed protective effects against STZ induced AD in mice due to the presence of anthocyanins, betalains, and omega-3 fatty acids.
Keywords: Dietary supplements, Alzheimer's disease, Purple carrot, Beetroot, Flaxseed oil, Streptozotocin
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
Dietary supplements containing anthocyanins, betalains, and ω-fatty acids from purple carrot, red beetroot, and flaxseed can be served as potent protective agents against AD due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.