J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2022;11: 419-427.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2022.48
  Abstract View: 119
  PDF Download: 56

Original Article

Antibacterial activity of airborne fungal mediated nanoparticles in combination with Foeniculum vulgare essential oil

Haitham Qaralleh 1* ORCID logo, Khaled Khleifat 2, 3 ORCID logo, Muhamad Al-Limoun 3 ORCID logo, Amjed Al-Tarawneh 4 ORCID logo, Waqar Khleifat 3 ORCID logo, Ibrahem Almajali 1 ORCID logo, Rula Buqain 5 ORCID logo, Khalid A. Shadid 6 ORCID logo, Noorah Aslowayeh 7 ORCID logo

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Science, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan
2 Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan
3 Biology Department, College of Science, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan
4 Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu’tah University, Jordan
5 Cell Therapy Center, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
6 Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Center (PDRC), Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan
7 Department of Biology, College of Education (Majmaah), Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah,11952, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Email: haitham@mutah.edu.jo


Introduction: A cost-effective and ecologically friendly method of generating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) includes pathways that utilize a variety of biological sources to decrease metal ions. This study was designed to synthesize AgNPs using a fungus strain Aspergillus flavus and evaluate its antibacterial activities alone or in combination with Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (EO).

Methods: The antibacterial activity of different concentrations of biosynthesized AgNPs by Aspergillus flavus individually and in combination with fennel EO was investigated using disc diffusion methods and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested.

Results: Formation of dark brown color, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. Obvious synergistic effects were observed between AgNPs and EO of fennel (F. vulgare) with all tested bacteria except S. aureus, through increases in fold area of inhibition (IFAs) within the range of 0.15 to 8.87. Although S. aureus had the most susceptibility toward both AgNPs and EO of fennel (24 and 17 mm, respectively), no synergistic activity was exhibited. The best synergistic capacity resulted from AgNPs and fennel EO was observed against S. epidermidis (8.87-fold in IFA).

Conclusion: This study revealed that when biosynthesized AgNPs were mixed with the EO of F. vulgare, they became more bacteriostatic and might be developed to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Synergistic activity, Antimicrobial activity, Medicinal plant, Aspergillus flavus

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: These data may be used to develop and improve new antibacterial drugs as innovative medications by integrating nanoparticles (NPs) with antibiotics or other types of EOs of different plants. Please cite this paper as: Qaralleh H, Khleifat K, Al-Limoun M, Al-Tarawneh A, Khleifat W, Almajali I, et al. Antibacterial activity of airborne fungal mediated nanoparticles in combination with Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2022;11(3):419-427. doi: 10.34172/jhp.2022.48.
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Submitted: 17 Mar 2022
Revision: 29 Apr 2022
Accepted: 06 May 2022
ePublished: 27 Jun 2022
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