Introduction: Curative misuse of medicinal plants are worrisome with the paucity of histological information. This led to the investigation of Ipomoea asarifolia in Swiss albino rats infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Methods: Extraction was done using the cold maceration method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined using the micro-dilution method. Swiss albino rats of 6 sub-groups with 6 animals each (36 animals/organism) were administered with 0.3 ml single oral dose of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. The animals received treatment for 5 days as follows: 0.5 ml of 5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (negative control), 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin (positive control), 2 mg/kg of whole plant extract, 4 mg/kg of whole plant extract, 2 mg/kg of leaf extract, and 4 mg/kg of leaf extract, respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood count (WBC) of the animals were determined before and after treatment with histology examination of vital organs.
Results: MIC for S. aureus was 2 mg/mL; the mortality in S. aureus group at 2 mg/kg was 66.7%. The PCV values (50.5±0.5, 45.0±1.0, and 50.5±1.5) decreased after infection, and a corresponding increase in the PCV was observed after treatment with the extracts. Also, a significant increase in the WBC values (3.40±0.35, 4.10±0.15, and 3.30±0.40) following infection and a corresponding decrease after treatment were observed. Congestion of vessels in the kidney was also observed.
Conclusion: I. asarifolia has a dose-dependent antibacterial and curative activity, and could enhance innate immunity.