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J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2022;11: 401-408.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2022.46
  Abstract View: 146
  PDF Download: 77

Original Article

Analysis of the chemical compositions of six essential oils and evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial activities against some drug-resistant bacteria in aquaculture

Asmaa Chbel 1 ORCID logo, Abdelhakim Elmakssoudi 2 ORCID logo, Manuel Rey-Méndez 3 ORCID logo, Juan L. Barja 4 ORCID logo, Abdelaziz Soukri 1 ORCID logo, Bouchra El khalfi 1* ORCID logo

1 Laboratory of Physiopathology, Molecular Genetics & Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences Ain Chock, Research center of Health & Biotechnology, Hassan II University of Casablanca, 20100 Casablanca, Morocco
2 Laboratory of Organic Synthesis, Extraction, and Valorization (OSEV), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences Ain Chock, Hassan II University of Casablanca, 20100 Casablanca, Morocco
3 Laboratory of Molecular Systematics, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology/CIBUS & Institute of Aquaculture, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Biology/CIBUS & Institute of Aquaculture, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding author: Bouchra El khalfi, Email: , Email: bouchra.elkhalfi@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: The extensive use of chemicals and antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has decreased the immune mechanisms of cultivated species and promoted the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms leading to diseases among cultivated fish, affecting consumers’ health. Thus, the investigation of natural antibacterial and anti-stress agents is crucial. In the current study, we focused on the evaluation of the potential use of essential oils (EOs) as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

Methods: The EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation from clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia herba-alba), cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) and oregano (Origanum compactum) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their antibacterial activities were carried out against five bacteria, pathogenic to fish in aquaculture, using the well diffusion and microatmosphere methods. The pathogens used were Vibrio anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae subsp damselae, Aeromonas salmonicida, Edwardsiella tarda, and Lactococcus garvieae. Then, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of each EO were determined. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was performed in vitro.

Results: The investigated EOs were effective against the pathogenic strains. They showed variable constituents such as phenols, sesquiterpenes, and monoterpenes. Regarding the antioxidant activity, cinnamon, clove, and oregano EOs showed their abilities to donate hydrogen to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical and scavenge free radicals produced by 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), respectively.

Conclusion: These results gave insight into the potential use of phytobiotics in aquaculture as a safe strategy to substitute antibiotics to protect fish from oxidative stress and inhibit the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria for safer consumption of cultivated fish.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Aquaculture, Drug resistance, Free radical scavengers, Antibacterial activity, Health

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: The essential oils (EOs) of clove, cinnamon, rosemary, and oregano showed good antibacterial and antioxidant activities. This research can be continued to the in vivo assay to obtain more evidence for their efficacy. EOs could be used as an alternative to chemicals in order to overcome infectious diseases and oxidative stress occurring in fish to limit related health problems affecting fish consumers. Please cite this paper as: Chbel A, Elmakssoudi A, Rey-Méndez M, Barja JL, Soukri A, El Khalfi B. Analysis of the chemical compositions of six essential oils and evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial activities against some drug-resistant bacteria in aquaculture. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2022;11(3):401-408. doi: 10.34172/jhp.2022.46.
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Submitted: 15 Feb 2022
Revision: 05 Apr 2022
Accepted: 08 Apr 2022
ePublished: 25 Jun 2022
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