J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2021;10(4): 459-467.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2021.53
  Abstract View: 254
  PDF Download: 249

Original Article

The cytotoxicity, anti-inflammation, anti-nociceptive and oral ulcer healing properties of coconut shell liquid smoke

Meircurius Dwi Condro Surboyo 1* ORCID logo, Fatma Yasmin Mahdani 1 ORCID logo, Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas 1 ORCID logo, Arvind Babu Rajendran Santosh 2 ORCID logo, Diah Savitri Ernawati 1 ORCID logo, Dieni Mansur 3 ORCID logo, Ira Arundina 4 ORCID logo, Ayu Anggraini Broto Nagoro 5 ORCID logo, Indriasari Putri Rahmadhany 1 ORCID logo

1 Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
2 School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
3 Research Centre for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK – Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia
4 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
5 Bachelor of Dental Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia


Introduction: Coconut shell liquid smoke (CS-LS) from Cocos nucifera L. has been traditionally used by Indonesians as a natural preservative. Besides that, liquid smoke is also used as a medicine to treat various types of wounds. During the storage, liquid smoke resulting from pyrolysis is still questionable in relation to the oxidation process and changes in its properties and potentials. We observed the physical characteristics, components, toxicity, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive properties, and effect in oral ulcer healing of CS-LS. Methods: Acidity was analyzed using a digital pH meter, density test was analyzed using a pycnometer, and the components were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight concentrations of CS-LS (1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) were tested on baby hamster kidney (BHK21) for the extract toxicity, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema for its anti-inflammatory properties, hot-plate test for its anti-nociceptive, and traumatized labial fornix incisive inferior for its oral ulcer healing. Results: The acidity of CS-LS was 2.296 and the density was 1.0102 g/mL. The major components analyzed were phenol (32.75%), 2-methoxy-phenol (17.45%), and furfural (13.09%). The CS-LS 100% and CS-LS 8% were the optimum concentrations for maintaining the BHK21 and increasing the number of fibroblasts in oral ulcer healing. The CS-LS 100% showed potent anti-nociceptive ability compared to other concentrations (P = 0.001), but not for the anti-inflammation properties. Conclusion: CS-LS is a promising natural herb for oral medicine, especially oral ulcer medicine.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory activity, Anti-nociception, Bio-economy, Coconut shell liquid smoke, Cytotoxicity, Oral ulcer

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

This paper provides the properties of coconut shell liquid smoke, and therefore, it might be useful for the treatment of oral ulcers.

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Submitted: 19 May 2021
Revision: 20 Jun 2021
Accepted: 20 Jul 2021
ePublished: 02 Oct 2021
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