J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(4): 374-381.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.47
  Abstract View: 562
  PDF Download: 170

Original Article

In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial assays of selected Nigerian commercial herbal formulations

Chinedu Joseph Ikem 1, 2 ORCID logo, Regina Appiah-opong 3, Angus Nnamdi Oli 2* ORCID logo, Malachy Chigozie Ugwu 2 ORCID logo, Patrick Amoateng 4 ORCID logo, Kojo Agyemang 4 ORCID logo, David Chinemerem Nwobodo 2, 5 ORCID logo, Charles Okechukwu Esimone 2 ORCID logo

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madonna University, Elele, River State, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
3 Department of Clinical Pathology, Noguchi Memorial institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Ghana
4 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Ghana
5 Department of Microbiology, Renaissance University, Enugu, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: Angus Nnamdi Oli, a.n.oli@live.com


Introduction: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease, mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. The problem caused by the disease is further compounded by the emergence and spread of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Coupled with the poor distribution of modern health facilities, there is resurgence in the use of herbal remedies to treat malaria. In this study, we evaluated the antiplasmodial activities of six commercially available herbal formulations using in vivo and in vitro methods to assess their claimed antimalarial properties.

Methods: The antiplasmodial activities of the six herbal formulations were assessed using Chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum parasite strain 3D7 using the SYBR Green in vitro method and the in vivo curative test (established infection) in Plasmodium berghei infected Mus musculus.

Results: The six herbal formulations had values of IC50 > 100 μg/mL on 3D7 strain of P. falciparum compared to controls which had IC50 values of 6.92nM (Chloroquine) and 0.75nM (Artesunate). In the curative evaluation (in vivo) the herbal formulations significantly reduced parasitaemia on day 4 (26.3%-77.3 %) and day 7 (45.54%-94.81%) post-treatments (P < 0.05) when compared to the untreated group, which recorded high mortality rate.

Conclusion: Findings made in this study lend support to the claim that these herbal formulations have antiplasmodial activities. Percentage inhibitions of parasitaemia of the formulations were all above 50% except M??T capsule which had lower percentage inhibition of parasitaemia.

Keywords: Antiplasmodial activity, Herbal formulations, Malaria, SYBR Green, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

The tested formulations could serve as good antiplasmodial therapy and the constituents as lead for the discovery of novel antiplasmodial compounds.

Please cite this paper as: Ikem CJ, Appiah-opong R, Oli AN, Ugwu MC, Amoateng P, Agyemang K, et al. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial assays of selected Nigerian commercial herbal formulations. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(4):374-381. doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.47.

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Submitted: 12 Dec 2019
Accepted: 05 Feb 2020
ePublished: 01 Jul 2020
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