J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(4): 346-354.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.44
  Abstract View: 818
  PDF Download: 179

Original Article

Enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of ethanol fruit extract of Muntingia calabura Linn

Adelina Simamora 1, 2* ORCID logo, Adit Widodo Santoso 2 ORCID logo, Ika Rahayu 1, 2 ORCID logo, Kris Herawan Timotius 1, 2 ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Krida Wacana Christian University, Jakarta, 11510, Indonesia
2 Center for Enzyme Research in Health and Diseases (CERiH), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Krida Wacana Christian University (UKRIDA), Jakarta, 11510, Indonesia
*Corresponding author: Adelina Simamora, Email: adelina.simamora@ukrida.ac.id


Introduction: Muntingia calabura is used for many medicinal advantages. So far, limited study has been done for the bioactivities of M.calabura fruit. The study aimed to investigate the enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of M.calabura fruit.

Methods: Ethanol extract of M.calabura fruit was tested for its inhibitory enzyme activities against key enzymes linked to human pathologies, such as diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase), hyperuricemia (xanthine oxidase), and obesity (lipase). The antioxidant properties were investigated using different in vitro assays (DPPH, CUPRAC, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelating and DNA-Damage protection assays). The fruit was also evaluated for its antibacterial activity against several gram positive and negative bacteria.

Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 10.85 mgGAE/g and 3.30 mg QE/g, respectively. The fruit extract showed good inhibition against α-glucosidase and α-amylase (IC50 16.74 and 46.49 µg/ml, respectively), with activities stronger than acarbose (100.38 and 152.46 µg/ml, respectively). It exhibited weak inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (IC50 0.91 mg/ml) and lipase (IC50 16.48 mg/ml), weaker than the references used for respective test (IC50 allopurinol 5.31 µg/ml and orlistat 0.17 µg/ml). The extract showed antibacterial activities againts Chromobacterium violaceum, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract showed weaker antioxidant activities, when compared to ascorbic acid and BHT. However, the extract was able to protect DNA-damage.

Conclusions: The study concludes that M. calabura fruit exhibits antioxidant, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory properties, thus can be a good source for pharmacological uses.

Keywords: DNA protection, Fruit, α-glucosidase, Kersen, Lipase, Xanthine oxidase

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

The bioactivities (enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities) of M. calabura fruit proved in this study support the ethnopharmacological use of this fruit, therefore it is recommended for further exploration as a natural source for food supplement in pharmaceutical industry.

Please cite this paper as: Simamora A, Santoso AW, Rahayu I, Timotius KH. Enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of ethanol fruit extract of Muntingia calabura Linn. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(4):346-354. doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.44.

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Submitted: 27 Jul 2019
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019
ePublished: 01 Jul 2020
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