J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2019;8(3):205-211.
doi: 10.15171/jhp.2019.30
  Abstract View: 189
  PDF Download: 260

Original Article

Antibacterial and toxicological evaluation of the ethanol leaf extract of Anthonotha macrophylla

Grace Akanimo Essiet 1, Monday Udofa Anwankwo 1, Godwin Christian Akuodor 2 * , Gloria Ahunna Ajoku 3, Casimir Chijioke Offor 4, Anthony Uchenna Megwas 5, Daniel Ogbonna John Aja 2

1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria
4 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria
5 Department of Optometry, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: The leaves of Anthonotha macrophylla which are widely used in folkloric medicine in Africa were evaluated for antibacterial activity and its toxicological profile.Methods: Antibacterial activities of the leaves against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis were compared with cefoxitin. Toxicological profiles were determined following the administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the leaf extract and distilled water, as control, to male Albino rats for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological indices and body weights were determined and the vital organs were examined.Results: The ethanol leaf extract of A. macrophylla demonstrated antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested. Toxicological investigation of the leaf extract showed no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical indices, and the vital organs as well. The LD50 in rats was more than 5000 mg/kg.Conclusion: Findings suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of A. macrophylla possess good antimicrobial activity which supports the traditional use of this plant across Africa. The plant is also considered safe following oral exposure after 28 days.
Introduction: The leaves of Anthonotha macrophylla which are widely used in folkloric medicine in Africa were evaluated for antibacterial activity and its toxicological profile.Methods: Antibacterial activities of the leaves against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis were compared with cefoxitin. Toxicological profiles were determined following the administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the leaf extract and distilled water, as control, to male Albino rats for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological indices and body weights were determined and the vital organs were examined.Results: The ethanol leaf extract of A. macrophylla demonstrated antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested. Toxicological investigation of the leaf extract showed no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical indices, and the vital organs as well. The LD50 in rats was more than 5000 mg/kg.Conclusion: Findings suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of A. macrophylla possess good antimicrobial activity which supports the traditional use of this plant across Africa. The plant is also considered safe following oral exposure after 28 days.
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Submitted: 12 Jan 2019
Revised: 02 Mar 2019
Accepted: 08 Mar 2019
First published online: 09 May 2019
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