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J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2017;6(4): 171-177.
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Original Article

Antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf extract and fractions of Alchornea cordifolia

Anosike Nnamdi 1, Ette Ettebong 2*, Koofreh Davis 3

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria ettebong@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Alchornea cordifolia is widely used in Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed at assessing the in vivo antimalarial activities of the extract and fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol, aqueous) of the A. cordifolia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice as well as the antioxidant potentials of the crude extract and its fractions.Methods: Antioxidant activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide assays. By orally administering the extract (120 mg/kg, 240 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg) and fractions (240 mg/kg), antimalarial activities were evaluated using suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests. Chloroquine (5 mg/kg), pyrimethamine (1.2 mg/kg) and artesunate (5 mg/kg) were used as positive controls.Results: The crude extract showed a significant (P < 0.05–0.001) dose-dependent antimalarial activity in the suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests and increased animal survival time. All fractions caused significant reduction in parasitaemia with the ethylacetate fraction showing the highest activity. The extract and the fractions showed a significant (P < 0.05–0.001) dose- dependent antioxidant activity.Conclusion: Alchornea cordifolia exhibited significant antimalarial and antioxidant potentials, which may be useful in the on-going fight against malaria.
Keywords: Antiplasmodial, Alchornea cordifolia, Plasmodium berghei, Antioxidant
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Revision: 27 Apr 2017
ePublished: 24 Sep 2017
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