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  Abstract View: 74

Original Article

Antiplasmodial activity against resistant strains, toxicity and effect on mouse liver enzymes of extracts of Terminalia species found in Southwest Cameroon

Moses Njutain Ngemenya 1, 2* ORCID logo, Grace Ntube Abwenzoh 1 ORCID logo, Denis Zofou 1 ORCID logo, Thierry Roland Kang 1 ORCID logo, James Ajeck Mbah 3 ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South West Region, Cameroon
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South West Region, Cameroon
3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon

Abstract

Introduction: Terminalia species have the potential to be exploited in phytomedicine based on their several pharmacological properties including antiplasmodial activity. However, there is need for more data on their antiplasmodial activity and toxicity. This study evaluated the antiplasmodial activities of Terminalia catappa and Terminalia superba found in the coastal area of Cameroon on resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum not previously tested, and their toxicity. Methods: Three leaf extracts of each plant prepared separately using three organic solvents were screened in vitro on 3 strains of P. falciparum: chloroquine-sensitive 3D7, chloroquine-resistant Dd2 and multi-drug resistant W2mef using the parasite growth inhibition assay. Antiplasmodial activity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Cytotoxicity of active extracts was assessed on LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells and acute toxicity including effect on some liver enzymes in BALB/c mice. Results: The methanol extracts of both plants showed the highest antiplasmodial activity (IC50 between 5.03-9.76 μg/mL) on the three parasite strains. The methanol extracts showed high selectivity for parasites with selectivity index values ranging from 40 to 80 indicating very low risk of toxicity. There was no mortality or adverse effect and no significant effect on the liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.506) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.243). Conclusion: The antiplasmodial activity, high selectivity and no adverse effects for T. catappa and T. superba demonstrate the potential for use of these plants in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into a phytomedicine against malaria and as source of new antimalarial lead.
Keywords: Terminalia, Antiplasmodial, Resistance, Medicinal plants, Toxicity, Liver enzymes
This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites.
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Submitted: 30 Dec 2019
Revision: 26 Mar 2020
Accepted: 31 Mar 2020
ePublished: 20 Oct 2020
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