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J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(3): 257-267.
doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.33
  Abstract View: 128
  PDF Download: 87

Original Article

Evaluation of the biochemical, haematological and histopathological parameters of female Wistar rats fed with aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aspilia africana leaves.

Uche O. Arunsi 1* ORCID logo, Godwin C. Chinyere 1 ORCID logo, Kenneth O. Ngwogu 2 ORCID logo, Ada C. Ngwogu 3 ORCID logo, Okechukwu C. Atasie 1 ORCID logo, Ugo A. Oti 1 ORCID logo, John K. Akujuobi 1 ORCID logo, Chinedu Udeogu 1 ORCID logo, Chibuike Ibe 4 ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
2 Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: Uche O. Arunsi, Email: arunsi.uche@abiastateuniversity.edu.ng

Abstract

Introduction: Aspilia africana is a plant commonly used to stop bleeding, heal wound, and manage various stomach complaints. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of A. africana on biochemical (liver function tests, renal function tests, and lipid profile), histopathological (kidney and liver) and haematological parameters of the female Wistar rats.

Methods: To study acute toxicity, the median lethal dose (LD50) was determined by oral administration of different doses of the extract to 8 groups of 3 rats each and the animals were observed for 24 hours for signs of toxicity. To evaluate the toxicological effect of the extract, 3 groups of 5 animals each received 0.5 mL normal saline (control), 250 or 500 mg/kg of the extracts for 2 consecutive weeks.

Results: Data revealed the LD50 of the extract to be >5000 mg/kg.bw. There was no significant variation in organosomatic indices of the animals fed with aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. africana leaves. In comparison with the control, there were significant increases (p<0.05) in serum liver and kidney biomarkers, high density lipoprotein, and white blood cells while some red cells indices, platelets, some lipid profile levels reduced significantly (p<0.05). A marked alteration in hepatic and renal architectures was also observed.

Conclusion: The result of this study shows that the A. africana leaf may not be safe as medicine despite the outcome of LD50 acute toxicity studies. For it to be integrated in folk medicine, we recommend its use at minimal doses.

Keywords: Biochemical changes, Histopathology, Haematology, Toxicity, Aspilia africana

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

In this study, the oral injection of aqueous and ethanol A. africana leaf extracts modulated significantly the biochemical (liver function tests, renal function tests, and lipid profile), histopathological (kidney and liver) and haematological parameters of female Wistar rats after 14 days. Based on this we suggest that more research works should be carried out on the plant to determine the therapeutic dose with larger safety margin and that the traditional medicine practitioners should be sensitized on possible dangers associated with long-term use of the plant.

Please cite this paper as: Arunsi UO, Chinyere GC, Ngwogu KO, Ngwogu AC, Atasie OC, Oti UA, et al. Evaluation of the biochemical, haematological and histopathological parameters of female Wistar rats fed with aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aspilia africana leaves. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020;9(3):257-267. doi: 10.34172/jhp.2020.33.

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Submitted: 09 Nov 2019
Accepted: 28 Jan 2020
ePublished: 02 May 2020
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